The Zoroastrian-Persians established the first known international empire. The Hakkamanishiya (Achaemenian) empire founded by Cyrus (Kurush) the Great stretched from Greece to Egypt and from Central Asia to India. There were many illustrious kings in this dynasty like Kambastha (Cambyses), Ksharaya (Xerses) and Darayavayush (Darius). This dynasty ruled from the year 550 B.C.E. up to 330 B.C.E. The second Zoroastrian dynasty was that of the Sassanians which was founded by Artakshira (Ardeshir or Artaxerses). The illustrious rulers of this line were Firuz, Noshirvan and Kushro Parvez.The Sassanians ruled from 211 C.E. up to 634 C.E. till the Arab conquest of Iran
When a leading proponent of the death cult--Islam--launches a renewed, vigorous attack against the United states and Israel. The end goal, as stated by the founder of this cult: world domination. When someone tells you that he is giving you a chance to convert or he will kill you, believe him!
When someone comes to kill you, kill him first.
Zoroastrianism - 1000 BCE
Zoroastrianism was founded by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia which followed an aboriginal polytheistic religion at the time. He preached what may have been the first monotheism with a single supreme god, Ahura Mazda. Zoroastrians belief in the dualism of good and evil as either a cosmic one between Ahura Mazda and an evil spirit of violence and death, Angra Mainyu, or as an ethical dualism within the human consciousness. The Zoroastrian holy book is called the Avesta which includes the teachings of Zarathushtra written in a series of five hymns called the Gathas. They are abstract sacred poetry directed towards the worship of the One God, understanding of righteousness and cosmic order, promotion of social justice, and individual choice between good and evil. The rest of the Avesta was written at a later date and deals with rituals, practice of worship, and other traditions of the faith.
Zoroastrians worship through prayers and symbolic ceremonies that are conducted before a sacred fire which symbolizes their God. They dedicate their lives to a three-fold path represented by their motto: "Good thoughts, good words, good deeds." The faith does not generally accept converts but this is disputed by some members.
SEE APPENDIX FOR KHOMEINI WRITINGS AND SPEECHES. lw
Comments: On the name Cyrus
We are doing an event on Persia. We've decided to name the event 'Cyrus'. As so many conflicts are present globally at this date, we've decided to honour and celebrate the great. The 'great' being all human rights practiced and respected. We've chosen the theme 'Cyrus' (Persian night) as Cyrus the great declared the first Charter of Human Rights known to mankind, which is written on a clay cylinder.
The event will feature many entertainments such as dancing, drums and faqir (fire eater). I was wondering if in fact Persian dancing was performed as an entainment or something else. We did some research on it but could not confirmed the tradition.
Someone please help?
Thank you kourosh for your weblog.
I Live in Perisa(Iran) and am so happy and glad that you have make this
blog for represent peopels.
I have someting to say for Hari:
I am persian, I know Avesta The holly book off Zartosht, I am Zoroastrian...
but it will take time until the people here to understand who they were, what they had and what they have lost. We where not conquered by alexander the pig! thats what they say. But WE had do it to our selfs.. WE had lost our self..WE had BETRAYAL our self
like Besus or Mazeh or Sati Barzan or Razant.
Persia will come back and breath again but more powerful than ever.
LIVE WITH KOUROSH THE GREAT
by: Cyrus Farivar
Kourosh is modern and ancient Persian, yes.
Kourosh is modern persian . Ancient persian is Kurush like the ancient Kuru dynasty of India.
It would be great if persians called Cyrus Kurush and darius Dārayawušh and Zoroaster Zarathushtra!! I think it would be even greater if Persians read the Avesta and found its closeness to the Indian Vedas. There is far too much in common both the religions and languages. Persians always say they are proud of their culture but no one knows anything about the Avesta!!!
by: Cyrus Farivar
Yes, the Persian word for daughter is usually spelled "dokhtar".
And yes, Dan, I find Firefox has better Unicode support than Safari.
Weird—for some reason, Safari doesn't connect the letters when you write your name in Farsi at the top of your front page, but Firefox (and Camino) does. I don't know Farsi, but I studied Arabic for a little while, so it confused me. Oh well, guess it'll make a good MacUser post. :)
by: Philippe Azimzadeh
I knew it!
I've been reading your posts at Macuser and have always suspected that you were Persian. I myself am half Persian and half French, since my father is Persian but I was born in France...So I pronounce my first name the French way and my last name the Persian way and it really confuses people.
And antipanti, you're right, daughter is almost pronounced almost the same way in Persian (it's like : "Dortal" or "Doghtal")
What's weird is that "son" is not (it's "Pesal" or "Peghsal")
If you want to know, my last name's pronouced kind of like "aah-zim-zah-deh"
But this is about Cyrus, so..
Beautiful and fascinating, thank you. I studied ancient Greek at high school (in Italy) and I remember lots of stories from the old historic literature we had to translate, and Cyrus was always there. Didn't know his name was actually Ky-roosh, with this "sh" sound :) But I know now, from a friend of mine that studied Persian, that Farsi or Persian has many elements from a indo-european basis. He told me once that "daughter" in Persian sound pretty much like, ehm, "daughter"! Dotar, something like that. You only write using tha arab system, I know :)
Nah, I studied political economy. :-)
wow and to think some people cared that much
Gee, I doubt that anyone is gonna be able to correct you...
What did you study @ Berkeley? It wasnt perhaps Persian History and Culture was it? ;)
"The imperialists do not allow the establishment
of a single leader in Iran’s secular and
Islamic Universities because they fear the ideas
of Iranian men. The singular person who opposes
them ideologically is the threat to their existence
"As long as the Muslim Umma is tied with
these secular institutions and continues to compare
secular and divine law, they will not see the
face of tranquility and freedom…they (the Iranian
regime) wish to distance us from the freedoms
present in the Quran (12)."
The Zoroastrian-Persians established the first known international empire. The Hakkamanishiya (Achaemenian) empire founded by Cyrus (Kurush) the Great stretched from Greece to Egypt and from Central Asia to India. There were many illustrious kings in this dynasty like Kambastha (Cambyses), Ksharaya (Xerses) and Darayavayush (Darius). This dynasty ruled from the year 550 B.C.E. up to 330 B.C.E. The second Zoroastrian dynasty was that of the Sassanians which was founded by Artakshira (Ardeshir or Artaxerses). The illustrious rulers of this line were Firuz, Noshirvan and Kushro Parvez.The Sassanians ruled from 211 C.E. up to 634 C.E. till the Arab conquest of Iran.
All our calamities and all our problems are
from America and all our calamities and all our
problems are from Israel. Those particular nuwab
(parliamentarians), ministers are from
(agents of) America, all hired to oppress this poor
nation further. Iran’s economy is in the hands of
America and Israel. Iranian markets are outside
the hands of Muslim merchants
"Outside powers must not interfere with the resources
of this nation;
it is vital that the Umma elect the nuwab of parliament;
The people and men of faith need to be instigators
of matters involving Iranian nationalism;
Should preserve freedom of the press.
"Islamic government is the government of
Shariah (Islamic law), none rules, the Shariah
rules. The Shariah are divine laws that govern
mankind and Islamic governments, it is taken
from the principles of Muhammad (PBUH), the
Caliphs and certain known (just) personages
"The reason for the revelation of the
Shariah is to constitute a government, not in the
image of an empire (15)."
Persian Excusion--Cyrus the Great
. . . It’s time to take a look at Iran. When Iraq and Iran are placed against each culturally and historically, they are as different as night and day even though they are neighboring countries. Speculation about the future of these two countries I’ll leave up to you.
Cyrus the Great (590 BC-529 BC)
Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Archaemenian dynasty and the Persian Empire. Cyrus' military victories eventually put him in possession of the largest empire in the world at that time. No doubt he was a remarkably humane ruler for his time. Certainly he has achieved his greatness not by words but by hard and difficult choices, actions, and sacrifice. Without any doubt all the above selected criteria in regard to Cyrus the Great is true. Even the Greeks, who for a long time considered the Persian Empire to be the chief threat to their own independence, never ceased to regard Cyrus as a thoroughly admirable ruler. His policy towards the people of his empire was one of tolerance and understanding, as reflected in his authorization of the rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple in 538 BC. Cyrus the Great died in battle in 530 BC. He was succeeded by his son Cambyses. Cyrus the Great achieves highest rank among all world leaders throughout the human history because of the following reasons:
• High moral and ethical values.
• Created Persian Empire based on ethics.
• Expanded the Ethical Empire to include all men who wish to join it.
• In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1-4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. His name occurs twenty two times in the Bible.
• Establishment of a constitution and Judicial system based on high moral and ethical values.
• Freedoms of religion, job, and place of residency; being advocate of freedom of choice 2500 years ago is very admirable. On the contrary Constantine the Great 800 years later did not have religious toleration (persecuted the Jews) and introduced laws that made certain occupations (e.g., butchers, bakers) hereditary.
• Were it not for Cyrus, therefore, it seems at least possible that the Jewish people would have died out as a separate group in the fifth century BC
• Created Gold and Silver coins for trading.
• Ordered all Governors to treat the people as their own children, and no one could be executed for a first time crime.
• Slavery was not allowed. The Old Persian culture did not accept the concept of slavery. This is a good indication of a great ethical culture; we can admire this especially when we see some 250 years later Aristotle's ideas of slavery as natural law. This idea of Aristotle was used in the Roman Empire and after that in the British Empire as natural law.
• Despite the fact that Cyrus the Great was a genius he would consult with other leaders from different ethnic background to come up with a better solution for their problems.
• Cyrus was clearly a leader of immense military ability, and an outstanding statesman.
• Cyrus the Great had a Major influence on the thinking of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, and the Roman Empire form of government.
• He was exceptionally tolerant of local religions and local customs.
• He was moderate and respectful toward his defeated opponents, and if they were popular leaders among their people let them continue with their positions.
Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Persian Empire, the first ethical empire throughout human history. He overthrew three great empires (Medes, Lydians, and Babylonians), and united most of the ancient Middle East into a single state stretching from India to the Mediterranean Sea. Cyrus (Kurush in the original Persian) was born about 590 BC, in the province of Persis (now Fars), in southwest Iran. Cyrus was the grandson of Astyages, king of the Medes. Before Cyrus's birth, Astyages had a dream that his grandson would someday overthrow him. The king ordered that the infant be killed promptly after his birth. However, the official entrusted with the job of killing the infant had no heart for such a bloody deed, and instead handed him over to a shepherd and his wife with instructions that they put the child to death. But they, too, were unwilling to kill the boy, and instead reared him as their own. Ultimately, when the child grew up, he indeed caused the king's downfall.
Cyrus was clearly a leader of immense military ability. But that was only one facet of the man. More distinctive, perhaps, was the benign character of his rule. He was exceptionally tolerant of local religions and local customs, and he was disinclined to the extreme brutality and cruelty, which characterized so many other conquerors. The Babylonians, for instance, and even more notably the Assyrians, had massacred many thousands and had exiled whole peoples whose rebellion they feared. For example, when the Babylonians had conquered Judea in 586 BC, they had deported much of the population to Babylon. But fifty years later, after Cyrus had conquered Babylonia, he gave the Jews permission to return to their homeland. Were it not for Cyrus, therefore, it seems at least possible that the Jewish people would have died out as a separate group in the fifth century BC On the contrary, Constantine the Great emperor of Rome (c. 280-337) did not have religious toleration and can be said to mark the beginning of the official persecution of the Jews that was to persist in Europe for so many centuries.
To understand the greatness of Cyrus relative to his time (2500 years ago) we should compare him with Alexander The Great whom he came to power 250 years after Cyrus. Alexander had been brought up to believe that Greek culture represented the only true civilization, and that all of the non-Greek peoples were barbarians. Such, of course, was the prevailing view throughout the Greek world, and even Aristotle had shared it. When Alexander conquered the Persian capital Persepolis; he destroyed Persepolis (the ruin exists today). You can see the difference of these two leaders -- one conquers and allows freedom, the other conquers and destroys.
Another important point is that while Aristotle (250 years after Cyrus the Great) who was perhaps the greatest philosopher and scientist of the ancient world, he supported slavery. Aristotle originated the study of formal logic, enriched almost every branch of philosophy, and made numerous contributions to science, he supported slavery as being in accord with natural law, and he believed in the natural inferiority of women. Despite these last two extremely reactionary ideas, some of Aristotle's views were progressive e.g., "Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime," "All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind are convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth." the belief that it is worthwhile for human beings to conduct a systematic inquiry into every aspect of the natural world; and the conviction that we should utilize both empirical observations and logical reasoning in forming our conclusions.
Despite Aristotle's ideas of slavery as natural law, Cyrus the Great did not believe in slavery never took any slaves and hated brutality and injustice. This is another indication of an old rich Persian culture, which was based on ethics. Even today many forms of slavery exist in this globe, which is a disgrace to all humanity. For example in Time Magazine, June 21, 93 page 46 we read the following:
" A 1991 conference of Southeast Asian women's organizations estimated that 30 million women had been sold worldwide since the mid-1970s. Such figures are at best guesses and at worst only the tip of the iceberg."
Even if we compare Cyrus the Great with political leaders of our time he still achieves highest rank. One of the key attributes of Cyrus the Great was his fight against cruel rulers while not becoming a blind expansionist.
We would admire Cyrus the Great more when we see domination of Machiaavelli philosophy in our time around this globe. The Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) is notorious for his blunt advice that a ruler interested in maintaining and increasing his power should make use of deceitfulness, cunning, and lies, combined with a ruthless use of force. Machiavelli principal fame rests upon his book "The Prince"(a handbook for dictators). The Prince may be considered a primer of practical advice for a head of state. The basic point of view of the book is that in order to succeed; a prince should ignore moral considerations entirely and depend upon strength and cunning. Machiavelli discussed history and politics in purely human terms, and simply ignored moral consideration. Unfortunately Machiavelli is considered to be one of the principal founders of modern political thought. In chapter 17 of The Prince, Machiavelli discusses whether it is better for a prince to be loved or feared: "The reply is that one ought to be both feared and loved, but...it is much safer to be feared than loved, if one of the two has to be wanting ...for love is held by a chain of obligation which, men being selfish, is broken whenever it serves their purposes, but fear is maintained by a dread of punishment which never fails." Often, the most denunciation came from those who practiced what Machiavelli preached- a hypocrisy of which Machiavelli might approve, in principle! Therefore we should not judge politicians by their words but by their hard and difficult choices, actions, and great sacrifices.
Because of all the above reasons and high moral and ethical values Cyrus the Great scored the highest rank among all the greatest world's leaders both in ancient and modern times. Therefore Cyrus the Great may be said to be among the greatest political leaders of all time throughout human history.
The study of Cyrus the Great and establishment of his ethical Persian empire some 2500 years ago is a good indication that in our time the concept of world order based on ethics, ethical state, peace and harmony among nations are not an impossible goal and illusion. In this century the most fundamental and essential ingredients of an evolution towards these goals are democracy, freedom of expression, freedom of choice, freedom of religion, cultural toleration, human rights, political feedback mechanism, open trade policy, and open communications among people in this globe. The ethics of life are the pursuit of awareness for ourselves and others. The ultimate goal is total awareness. Ethical Government is a means of achieving that goal by raising man to a higher state of total awareness. Ethical leaders can lead men toward Ethical Government and Society, which can lead man to total awareness. To increase man's power is always ethical. However, only men who use power to expand awareness are ethical. Men who use power to diminish awareness are unethical.
Masoud Marvasti 1993
"Our Muslim leader is a person who is in
the mosque, issues rulings and cultivates the
moral of the army. If a stranger entered the
Mosque of Muhammad, the prophet was indistinguishable
from the other Muslims (there in
Khomeini wrote an entire book on the subject
of Islamic government, a concept that is alien
and difficult to quantify among Islamic thinkers
since the Prophet Muhammad left no clear guidance
on how Muslims should govern themselves.
Khomeini paints an image of how the fourth Caliph
Ali ruled, writing:
"The Commander of the Faithful Ali governed an
region of such vastness, encompassing Iran,
Egypt and the Hejaz (the Red Sea Coast of Arabia),
he had agents in Kurman, Ahvaz, Khurasan
and Basra, he lived a meager existence that a
poor student today could not exist on… and if the
Islamic government remained as it was then, the
oppression, transgression, and lust for the forbidden
would not have come to pass, all this originates
first from the leaders, they are the ones
that cross into the dens of degradation, lust and
He does not tie how early Muslims govern, and
when forced in his thesis to elaborate on the
structure of an Islamic government, he writes in
terms that may be familiar to a liberal democrat,
such as preserving security and justice for all.
Khomeini adds an Islamist spin, emphasizing,
"we must form a government that preserves the
security of people, one that has the trust of the
people, one which they can trust to surrender
…the goal in Islam is the formation
of a strong government based on the Shariah
(Islamic Law), and the supremacy of the Shariah,
even if this umma (community) lives on wheat
bread in the shadow of a just government is better
than living in palaces and entertainment while
losing freedom and security (18)."
It is also useful that the concept of freedom in the Middle East
tends to be associated with justice, not liberty (as
it is in western democracies), a psychology
Khomeini understood and exploited.
"The Prophet, Peace Be Upon Him
(PBUH) says that (the title) King of Kings otherwise
known as Shah-in-Shah (a title used by
Reza Shah) is the most hateful titles to God
Most High. Islam is not compatible to the regime
of the Shah-in-Shah and all those aware
and observe the regime know that Islam came
to tear down all palaces of the oppressive
Shah-in-Shah, and the Shah-in-Shah is the biggest
regime that is hateful and regressive. (1)"
Khomeini’s Writings and Speeches:
The Ideological Foundation of the
Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps
By LCDR Youssef Aboul-Enein, MSC, USN
The Beliefs of Khomeni the Leader of the Iranian Revolution
Nuri Tibiris, one of the most renowned Shi'ite scholars and mujtahids, wrote a book against the present Quran. The book is entitled: 'Faslul Khitab Fi Tahreefi-Kitabi Rabbil Arbaab' (The Final Verdict on the Distortion of the Book of the Lord of Lords).
Khomeini mentions this scholar with great respect in his own book 'A1Hukumatul Islamiyah" (The Islamic State). In fact, Khomeini has actually used Nuri Tibiris's work entitled "Mustadrakul Wasail" to complete his theory of Wilayatul Faqih.
[Wilayatul Faqih is the Islamic jurist's right to overrule a ruling that contradicts Islamic law.]
Khomeini writes about Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Omar (R.A.):
"Those people who, in their envy to rule, attached themselves to the Deen of the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and formed their own cliques could not possibly refrain from their actions on the bases of Quranic advice. They had to materialise their aims at any cost." (Kashful Asraar: 114)
He also writes:
'Those who had no affiliation with the Quran and Islam except through their desire for the world and power. They had made the Qurun a vehicle to promote their agenda. (Ibid)
In his book Kashful Asraar, Khomeni has dedicated a whole chapter to Hazrat Abu Bakr's opposition to the Quran and another chapter to the Omar's opposition. (Ibid: 114 & 117)
He has then continued to write a chapter on how to answer the critiques of the Ahlus Sunnah W'al Jama'ah with the heading: "An eye on the answers of the foolish." (Ibid: 120)
Khomeni writes about Hazrat Uthman (R.A.):
"We worship and recognise only that God Whose actions are based on concrete rationalism and Who does not rule against that rationalism. We do not worship a god who creates a building for Divine worship and justice and then strives to destroy that very building himself by giving authority to rascals like Yazid, Mu'awiyah and Uthman". (Ibid: 107)
These are but a few selected views of Majlisi, Maqbool Dehlavi, Noori and Allamah Khomeini, the leader of the Iranian Revolution. These have been presented to you without any critique or commentary. The reader should.judge for himself how much he can accept these beliefs. The reader should also ask himself if the rise of Khomeini in Iran was a political revolution or whether he had an agenda to propagate the Shi'ite beliefs. Or whether it was a challenge to all of the Muslim world, or a threat to the bonafides of the beliefs of Sunnis.
[MORE TO COME? Maybe, if I find something else pertinent. lw]
Khomeini's Writings and Speeches:
The Ideological Foundation of the
Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps
By LCDR Youssef Aboul-Enein, MSC, USN